How to fix Terraria does not start / immediately exits on Linux

If your Terraria exits immediately and the Terrria window never appears, try

cd ~/.local/share/Steam/steamapps/common/Terraria
./Terraria.bin.x86_64 > terraria.log

As it turns out, Terraria only starts properly on my machine if you redirect stdout to a file (or pipe it into another program), hence > terraria.log is neccessary to get it running.