How to check a stepper motor for open/short circuit?

In order to correctly check a stepper motor for a hard short circuit, you need an LCR meter. If you only have an multimeter, skip the winding inductance check.

Measuring the phase resistance

First, check the resistance of each phase winding(pair A and pair B). The resistance should be between 0.5 Ω and 5 Ω, but note that it is also influenced by your multimeter probes and the contact resistance from the probe to the pin. If possible, compare the measurement to the datasheet of your stepper motor or to the datasheet of your motor or a good motor of the same model. If the datasheet lists 1.5 Ω, I would accept anything from 1.0 Ω to 2.0 Ω. If you see an infinite resistance (typically indicated by OL [overload] on your multimeter), either you measured the wrong pins or your probes do not electrically contact the pins - or your motor has an open winding (no contact). Re-measure multiple time, trying to contact the pin on different points on the surface to confirm. Also check if your multimeter displays a sensible value if you short the multimeter probes. If you see a resistance that is way too low (e.g. 0.2 Ω for a nominal 1.5 Ω motor), your winding is shorted. This is typically not caused by a bad contact from the probes to the pin, but re-measure a few times just to confirm.

Now measure the resistance from one of the phase A pins to one of the phase B pins. The resistance should typically be OL (overload - i.e. a resistance so high the multimeter can’t measure it), but at least 5.0 MΩ. If it is any less, this indicates that the phases are shorted to each other. Be sure that you measured the correct pins.

Measuring the phase inductance

Now, Check the inductance of each phase winding (pair A and pair B). The inductance should be a couple of mH, but never below 100uH. A lower inductance indicates an windingthat is shorted internally. If possible, compare with the datasheet of your stepper motor or see What phase inductivity value should my stepper motor have? for more details on this topic.

Now check, using the resistance mode of your LCR meter, check if any phase wiring has. Typically the resistance between one phase winding and the other

If you don’t know which pins of the connector belong to which phase winding, the two pins of each pair should have an inductance that is within ±30% of each another at maximum.